In 1973, after more than a decade servicing the rubber industry with aromatic plasticizers and dispersions, Salvatore Monte invented the first of many organometallic titanate or zirconate coupling agents while working on a zinc oxide masterbatch.
But how do titanates and zirconates differ from silanes?
Even more so, how can a silane couple CNTs, graphene, sulfates, carbonates or cement that have no hydroxyl groups? How can nano-intumescence be achieved with a silane with no phosphato heteroatom functionality built into its ligands?
The differences are explained through their chemistry and six functions, according to Monte, who has spent 50 years teaching how they provide significantly different alternative coupling mechanisms.
In the March 21 issue of Rubber News’ Technical Notebook, Monte provides insight on this subject in the first of a two-part series.