Zinc oxide is used as the main activator along with stearic acid in the vast majority of rubber formulations today. However, some have considered zinc oxide as just another industrial chemical.
Technical Notebook: Quantifying differences among commercially used zinc oxide grades
On the other hand, we in ASTM D11 spent many years characterizing different grades of zinc oxide in relation to their performance in various rubber compounds and the establishment of at least three new ASTM Standards developed in the 1990s for judging the zinc oxide quality and general suitability in various rubber compounds.
This paper carries this work further by comparing these different grades of zinc oxide in critical rubber compounds.
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