In an effort to improve the environmental footprint of tires, a variety of sustainable oils were processed and evaluated in a model tread compound for low rolling resistance tires. These bio-based oils including degummed soy oil, tall oil, linseed oil, castor oil, orange oil and vulcanized vegetable oil, were ranked based upon material performance of the formulated tread compounds. Key findings include effect of oils on cure kinetics, tensile properties and tear resistance. DMTA results are correlated to on-vehicle performance predictors of rolling resistance and traction by assessing tan delta in various temperature regions. Our study shows that these "green" oils provide a promising alternative to petroleum products. This paper will also discuss the primary technical challenges and potential future opportunities for using renewable oils in tread compounds.