Never before has the demand for more fuel efficient, safe, durable and environmentally friendly tires been greater. In particular, a lot of emphasis has been put on improving the rolling resistance as evidenced by the various tire labelling legislations in progress around the globe. In addition to proper tire inflation, the rubber tread compound itself has a great influence on the resulting properties of a tire. Tire tread formulations typically consist of blends of polybutadiene (BR) and styrene-butadiene copolymers (SBR). This paper will examine and highlight the influence that high cis-1,4 polybutadienes (BR) and solution SBRs (S-SBRs) have on the tire tread compound. Specifically, it will focus on novel BRs and S-SBRs aimed at reducing rolling resistance (fuel economy), improving wet traction (safety) and wear (mileage). It will also discuss the successful introduction of environmentally friendly process oils which meet current regulations of the European Union.