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A look at the history of the pneumatic tire

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The development of the rubber calender in relationship to the invention, commercialization and evolution of the pneumatic tire provides the structure for this overview. The gradual migration from low-speed, labor intensive processes and the development and implementation of pre- and post- calender equipment is reviewed.

Changes in equipment in response to changes in reinforcing materials; the improvement over time in the accuracy and stability of feed-forward control capability;the development and implementation of feed-back measurement and control;and the resulting gradual emergence of calender operations as integrated process systems is outlined. Limitations of measurement and control technology with respect to certain properties and the fundamental dependence on the preceding material preparation processes are highlighted.