Titanates and Zirconates in Thermoplastic and Elastomer Compounds--Making Nano Technology Work
|Date Published||January 1, 2007|
Titanate or zirconate coupling agents form a less than 2-nanometer monomolecular layer on the surface of any organic/inorganic filler or fiber reinforcement directly in the polymer flux phase to promote adhesion and dispersion without the need for pretreatment, hydroxyl groups, water of condensation or drying – as is needed with silanes. Filler, fiber reinforcement or nano particulate exfoliation can thus be done in-situ in the extruder or Banbury. It is proposed that it may now be possible to manufacture a nano-clay filled nylon hose that will provide equivalent to PTFE VOC anti-permeation. Titanates are shown to chemically bridge and provide adhesion to non-silane reactive surfaces such as CaCO3, carbon black, Nomex, Kevlar, PET fiber, ZnO, PTFE, boron nitride, ammonium octamolybdate, ATH, Mg(OH)2, aramid, graphite, polyester, metals, etc. with thermoplastic and thermoset polymers such as Nitrile, EPR, HNBR/EPDM, Silicone (VMQ), Fluoroelastomer(FKM), TFE/PP, PP, PVC, Urethanes, Epoxy, Vinyl Ester, etc. It will be shown that less plasticizer, more filler or higher molecular weight polymer can be used while increasing properties, flow and flexibility at lower process temperatures. Superior aging of fiber reinforced thermosets will be shown. The Titanate Molecule’s Six Functions: Coupling, Catalysis, Heteroatom Phosphatization, Compatibilization, Co Curative Reactivity will be discussed to explain functionality. Coupling agent liquid, powder and pellet forms; dosage; data and applications methodology in compounding and processing are discussed. Selection tables are provided.