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Lord to invest $80 million for Pennsylvania expansion
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SAEGERTOWN, Pa.—Lord Corp. has disclosed plans to expand and upgrade operations at its Saegertown facility. The firm intends to invest $80 million during the next five years to add various...
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SAEGERTOWN, Pa.—Lord has disclosed plans to expand and upgrade operations at its Saegertown facility. SAEGERTOWN, Pa.—Lord has disclosed plans to expand and upgrade operations at its Saegertown facility. $SAEGERTOWN, Pa.—Lord has disclosed plans to expand and upgrade operations at its Saegertown facility.
3D printed polyurethane footwear makes technological strides
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All of the big sportswear brands have been investigating the possibility of printing high-performance footwear. And they have been supported by the manufacturers of materials and printing...
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All of the big sportswear brands have been investigating the possibility of printing high-performance footwear. And they have been supported by the manufacturers of materials and printing equipment. All of the big sportswear brands have been investigating the possibility of printing high-performance footwear. And they have been supported by the manufacturers of materials and printing equipment. $All of the big sportswear brands have been investigating the possibility of printing high-performance footwear. And they have been supported by the manufacturers of materials and printing equipment.
Maverix Solutions debuts new mold release coating
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SANTA ANA, Calif.—On the manufacturing floor, efficiency is key. Processes that create a time or cost savings are desired across the board. When one achieves both, with additional benefits...
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SANTA ANA, Calif.—Santa Ana-based Maverix Solutions developed Mavcoat MD-4, a mold release coating for the rubber industry that revolutionizes the molding process. SANTA ANA, Calif.—Santa Ana-based Maverix Solutions developed Mavcoat MD-4, a mold release coating for the rubber industry that revolutionizes the molding process. $SANTA ANA, Calif.—Santa Ana-based Maverix Solutions developed Mavcoat MD-4, a mold release coating for the rubber industry that revolutionizes the molding process.
Ford to restart F-150 output following supplier fire
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DEARBORN, Mich.—Ford Motor Co. will restart production of the F-150 pickup at a Dearborn factory May 18 after more than a week of downtime resulting from a fire at a key supplier plant in...
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DEARBORN, Mich.—Ford will restart production of the F-150 pickup at a Dearborn factory May 18 after more than a week of downtime resulting from a fire at a key supplier plant in Michigan. DEARBORN, Mich.—Ford will restart production of the F-150 pickup at a Dearborn factory May 18 after more than a week of downtime resulting from a fire at a key supplier plant in Michigan. $DEARBORN, Mich.—Ford will restart production of the F-150 pickup at a Dearborn factory May 18 after more than a week of downtime resulting from a fire at a key supplier plant in Michigan.
Parker to combine industrial, hydraulic hose businesses
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MARCO ISLAND, Fla.—Parker Hannifin Corp. is combining its industrial and hydraulic hose businesses into one division, though officials said customers shouldn't see any difference in their...
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MARCO ISLAND, Fla.—Parker Hannifin is combining its industrial and hydraulic hose businesses into one division, though officials said customers shouldn't see any difference in their dealings with the company. MARCO ISLAND, Fla.—Parker Hannifin is combining its industrial and hydraulic hose businesses into one division, though officials said customers shouldn't see any difference in their dealings with the company. $MARCO ISLAND, Fla.—Parker Hannifin is combining its industrial and hydraulic hose businesses into one division, though officials said customers shouldn't see any difference in their dealings with the company.
Coi Rubber building momentum, growth
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LOS ANGELES—Coi Rubber Products Inc. seemed to spring up out of nowhere in 2013 with a young, experienced industry veteran at the helm. It also had a small plant in China to handle...
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LOS ANGELESóCoi Rubber Products seemed to spring up out of nowhere in 2013 with a young, experienced industry veteran at the helm. It also had a small plant in China to handle manufacturing. That was the good news. LOS ANGELESóCoi Rubber Products seemed to spring up out of nowhere in 2013 with a young, experienced industry veteran at the helm. It also had a small plant in China to handle manufacturing. That was the good news. $LOS ANGELESóCoi Rubber Products seemed to spring up out of nowhere in 2013 with a young, experienced industry veteran at the helm. It also had a small plant in China to handle manufacturing. That was the good news.
Nokian expanding reach of SnapSkan service
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NOKIA, Finland—Nokian Tyres P.L.C. is broadening the scope of its SnapSkan digital tire-check service program beyond Helsinki to four additional sites in Finland and one in Oslo, Norway....
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NOKIA, Finland—Nokian is broadening the scope of its SnapSkan digital tire-check service program beyond Helsinki to four additional sites in Finland and one in Oslo, Norway. NOKIA, Finland—Nokian is broadening the scope of its SnapSkan digital tire-check service program beyond Helsinki to four additional sites in Finland and one in Oslo, Norway. $NOKIA, Finland—Nokian is broadening the scope of its SnapSkan digital tire-check service program beyond Helsinki to four additional sites in Finland and one in Oslo, Norway.
Bed-in-a-box mattress market expanding
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The mattress market has undergone a seismic shift in the past few years. High streets and retail parks are still full of department stores and specialist bedding shops where consumers can go and...
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The mattress market has undergone a seismic shift in the past few years as the growing trend for bed-in-a-box products significantly shakes things up. The mattress market has undergone a seismic shift in the past few years as the growing trend for bed-in-a-box products significantly shakes things up. $The mattress market has undergone a seismic shift in the past few years as the growing trend for bed-in-a-box products significantly shakes things up.
Wacky World of Rubber: Benefits of artificial turf
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The playing field is one of the most important elements across all sports. When it's working, it's hardly talked about. But when things go wrong—like say splitting in two or melting because ...
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When it's working, the playing field hardly is talked about. But when things go wrong—like say splitting in two or melting because of extreme temperatures—people notice. When it's working, the playing field hardly is talked about. But when things go wrong—like say splitting in two or melting because of extreme temperatures—people notice. $When it's working, the playing field hardly is talked about. But when things go wrong—like say splitting in two or melting because of extreme temperatures—people notice.
Supplier survey shows slipping relations for North American auto makers
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BIRMINGHAM, Mich.—One more sign that auto makers are under pressure from a spate of new industry challenges: Their relationships with suppliers have worsened. A survey of parts companies...
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BIRMINGHAM, Mich.—One more sign that auto makers are under pressure from a spate of new industry challenges: Their relationships with suppliers have worsened. BIRMINGHAM, Mich.—One more sign that auto makers are under pressure from a spate of new industry challenges: Their relationships with suppliers have worsened. $ BIRMINGHAM, Mich.—One more sign that auto makers are under pressure from a spate of new industry challenges: Their relationships with suppliers have worsened.
Digital Edition
Digital Edition
Published on January 1, 2006

New Insights into the Freeze-Thaw Stability of Polymer Latexes

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Date Published January 1, 2006
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This Report has been authored by:H.T. Davis at University of Minnesota #with# Xiaobo Gong at University of Minnesota #with# Joerg Leuninger at BASF AG #with# Cheng-Le Zhao at BASF AG #with# Rolf Dersch at BASF AG #with# Konrad Roschmann at BASF AG #with# L.E. Scriven at University of Minnesota

Freeze-Thaw (F/T) stability of polymer latexes and waterborne coatings formulations is of considerable industrial importance. Because of environmental concerns and legislative measures, there has been a driving force in recent years in the coatings industry to develop low-or-zero VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) waterborne formulations. In a lower VOC formulation (<50 g/L), the amount of antifreeze such as glycols that can be added has to be substantially reduced and is most probably no longer sufficient to impart F/T stability. It is a challenging goal that the next-generation polymer latexes be improved in such a way that they are not only F/T-stable themselves but are also capable of providing F/T stability to the coatings formulations which are based on them. Partly because of the lack of adequate microscopic techniques, fundamental aspects of F/T stability have not been studied extensively and are not well understood. The objective of this work is to try to clarify and better understand the effects of the key factors affecting the F/T stability of polymer latexes. In addition to following viscosity changes during F/T cycles, we apply advanced cryogenic SEM technique coupled with a high pressure freezing apparatus, which allows us to visualize micro-structural changes and to study the effects of the freezing and thawing processes separately. Relationships between F/T stability and polymer and colloidal characteristics are analyzed. Cryogenic electron micrographs also provide information for understanding the cause of viscosity rise during the F/T processes in F/T unstable latex. 
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